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Teaching and Learning Center: 1999 Events
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Summer 1999

Aug. 9, 1999 Workshop for Adjunct Faculty in Pharmacy Practice. How Students Learn: learning styles

Aug. 18, 1999 Orientation for New USP Full time and Part Time Faculty and Department Chairs

Aug. 18, 1999 Workshop for new and other faculty. How Students Learn: learning styles

Aug. 19, 1999 Workshop for Adjunct Faculty in Pharmacy Practice. How Students Learn: learning styles

Fall 1999

Sept. 7 and Sept. 13, 1999 T4: TableTalk: Teaching and Technology: Using Electronic Media to Foster Creative Teaching in Large Classes

Sept. 8, 1999 Graduate Student Instructor Workshop. Establishing a positive classroom climate

Sept. 21, 1999 & Sept. 27, 1999 T5: TableTalk: Teaching: Tips and Techniques: Alternatives to 50 minute lectures

Oct. 11, 1999 T4: TableTalk: Teaching and Technology: Using Eres to Aid in Your Teaching

Oct. 19, 1999 T5: TableTalk: Teaching: Tips and Techniques: Student Assessment Techniques: Multiple Choices

Oct. 21, 1999 Graduate Student Instructor Workshop. Giving laboratory presentations to orient students for lab set-ups of apparatus

Oct. 25, 1999 T5: TableTalk: Teaching: Tips and Techniques: Student Assessment Techniques: Multiple Choices

Nov. 2, 1999 T4: TableTalk: Teaching and Technology: Developing Web Supported Courses

Nov. 3, 1999 Workshop for Adjunct Faculty in Pharmacy Practice. Giving constructive feedback to students

Nov. 8, 1999 T4: TableTalk: Teaching and Technology: Developing Web Supported Courses

Nov. 11, 1999 Graduate Student Instructor Workshop. How to observe and respond to common student behaviors in the lab

Nov. 11, 1999 Workshop for Adjunct Faculty in Pharmacy Practice. Giving constructive feedback to students

Nov. 16, 1999 T5: TableTalk: Teaching: Tips and Techniques: Using Multiple Intelligences to Improve Student Learning

Nov. 19, 1999 Presentation to CAPP meeting (Deans, Department chairs). The Change Process and Academic Leaders Roles in Change

Nov. 29, 1999 T5: TableTalk: Teaching: Tips and Techniques: Using Multiple Intelligences to Improve Student Learning

Dec. 5, 1999 Graduate Student Instructor Workshop. Learning about our diversity, an informal event to unwind together.

Dec. 8, 1999 Organizational meeting to consider ways to redesign the curriculum through technology. All faculty were invited

Giving constructive feedback to students

Principles of giving feedback include focus feedback:

on rather than
behavior the person
observations inferences
description judgement
sharing of ideas, information giving advice
alternatives answers or solutions
specific situations abstract situations
value to recipient release for provider
what is said why it is said

Negative, but constructive feedback may be an excellent stimulus for growth, provided it is given in a supportive environment.

Pharmacy Practice Adjunct Faculty - Nov. 3, 1999 and Nov. 11, 1999
In pairs, participants gave further explanations or examples of the principles of giving feedback. Next they watched tapes of students. Within a role play situation, they enacted giving feedback to the student they just observed on the tape and reflecting how it felt to receive this feedback.

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Establishing a positive classroom climate

Establishing and maintaining rapport with students is essential to a successful relationship, aids in learning, and helps reduce student anxiety. Learning students' names is an important first step. Further suggestions for establishing and maintaining rapport include: when ask questions, pause before calling on anyone; take more than one answer from students, avoid stereotyping, provide prompt feedback, nonverbal encouragement, use positive reinforcement, maintain eye contact with students throughout the room, and keep constant tap on what is going on in class, how much they are learning.

Graduate Student Instructors - Sept. 8, 1999
Participants practiced learning the names of other participants and discussed how they can incorporate these suggestions into their own teaching. Role played how to use these techniques, others had to analyze what was done.

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Giving laboratory presentations to orient students for lab set-ups of apparatus

A laboratory presentation to orient students for a lab set-up of apparatus should emphasize safety, how and why each piece of apparatus is used, and include tips learned from experience. The instructor should be very comfortable with the material to be presented. Handouts are helpful. Use of real life analogies help students to remember how and why the task is performed as it is. The set-up should be done slowly enough so that the students can actually observe how it is done.

Graduate Student Instructors - October 21, 1999
Participants observed a poorly performed presentation. Students had to do the set up after this presentation, then analyzed what should have been done differently and how they could help the students learn more. Finally students observed an excellent presentation that was analyzed to emphasize the good points.

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How students learn: learning styles

People learn in different ways. Learning styles are preferences or predispositions of individuals. Because of learning style differences, people perceive or process information in a particular way or combination of ways. Research indicates that the relationship between learning styles and teaching styles partially predicts success of students. Instructors should facilitate learning by adapting their teaching style to accommodate different types of learners. One commonly used taxonomy of learning styles is auditory, visual, and tactile/kinesthetic learners. Different types of instructional strategies meet the needs of different types of learners.

Pharmacy Practice Adjunct Faculty -August 9, 1999 and August 19, 1999
New Faculty Orientation - August 18, 1999
Participants learned what they own preferred learning style is and saw that all types of learners were present among the participants. They were given sample course activities and were asked to make the activity more flexible and adaptive to meet the needs of different types of learners.

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How to observe and respond to common student behaviors in lab

Participants watch 3 short simulations of common student lab behavior and independently answer a series of questions concerning what they observed. Next they meet in small groups to compare their answers and determine the reliability of their observations. After watching each scenario again, small groups reach a consensus on what transpired. Finally, the small groups, and then as a larger group, discuss what can be improved and what the instructor can do to improve student behaviors in lab.

Graduate Student Instructors - November 11, 1999
Participants realized that it is difficult to accurately observe student behaviors, especially in a full lab setting. They determined many good ways for instructors to improve student behaviors.

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Introduction to Problem-based learning

Problem- based learning (PBL) is an instructional method that requires that the students get actively involved in their learning, helps students to think critically, learn how to learn, acquire team-building and communications skills. Students work cooperatively in groups to solve complex real world problems.

Professional and Organizational Development Network in Higher Education -October 13, 1999
Participants experience PBL from the students' perspective by working on a problem in small groups. Participants reflect on their experience as PBL learners and are given the opportunity to have their questions answered.

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The Change Process and Academic Leaders Role in Change

Change always occurs in the context of an institution, but is shaped by internal and external factors Must have a match between leader's vision and environment Integrated John Kotter's 8 stages of change with Roger's and Midendorf's Diffusion of Innovation 8 stages of change:

  1. establishing a sense of urgency
  2. creating a guiding coalition
  3. developing a vision and strategy
  4. communicating the change vision
  5. empowering broad based action
  6. generating short-term wins, implementation of the change
  7. consolidating gains and producing more change
  8. anchoring new approaches in the culture
  • Diffusion of innovation
    • Bell-shaped curve of people who accept change
      • 3% innovators
      • 13% early acceptors
      • 34% early majority
      • 34% late majority
      • 16% latecomers
  • Opinion leaders coming from the early acceptors are good people for influencing others to make changes
  • Need critical mass of people in favor of change before it will happen, usually 35% of total group

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Summary of the organizational meeting to consider ways to redesign the curriculum through technology (to increase productivity and lower costs)

  1. Good faculty attendance and active participation. Most departments were represented by at least one faculty member.
  2. Agenda
    • expectations for session - to generate ideas, and decide if we want to continue
    • definitions of educational productivity
      1. need to shift from teacher coverage to student learning
      2. measure productivity in terms of student learning, retention and student satisfaction
        • increasing educational productivity linked to giving students responsibility for their own learning, devising instructional supports to empower students, becoming responsive to individual student needs, providing individualized resources through technology
      3. equates educational productivity with educational quality
      4. is not increasing faculty loads, increasing student- faculty ratios with less interaction between them, hiring more adjunct faculty, lower paid teaching staff
    • generation, discussion of ideas of how to use to redesign the curriculum - complete list will follow, many good ideas were generated examples of ideas generated
      1. on- line exams (Cyber-exams are one product that can be used)
      2. peer teaching peers and then reporting to each other and the instructor electronically
      3. using distance learning techniques for on-campus courses
      4. graphing calculators
      5. electronic course management
      6. virtual labs
      7. self-paced computer instruction
      8. learning modules shared different courses for different students
      9. interdisciplinary pilot projects to try new technology
    • summary of concerns addressed
      1. learning curve and developing comfort level for faculty to use technology
      2. student access and availability of technology, especially computers, students becoming more unavailable to meet
      3. is technology appropriate solution, is technology being used appropriately
      4. will technology work when it is needed
    • discussion if we should continue
      1. decision to move ahead to more concrete steps, interdisciplinary pilot development and implementation projects
  3. Outcomes to come from this organizational meeting
    • list of all ideas generated for using technology in the classroom, with priority ideas more fully elaborated upon - will follow
    • a technology learning resource network for expertise sharing to be developed in the future
    • a list of possible initiatives, pilot projects that people expressed an interest in starting - will follow
    • this list will be distributed electronically, and then the Teaching and Learning Center will facilitate future meetings of these groups

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Discussants: Phyllis Blumberg, Joseph Lambert, Ray Orzechowski, Bill Reinsmith and Gail Webster

Some Key Points that were touched upon during the discussion:

  • Students can concentrate on a lecture for only about 20 minutes
  • The 50 minute time can be broken into several activities including shorter lectures, small group exercises, students working on a problem, asking questions, or answering questions
  • Prepare students for changes from what they expect in the way class is structured
  • Small groups are possible even within our large lecture halls
  • When the faculty member is quiet, students will be more inclined to talk. Students need to be in an accepting environment, without the faculty member giving all the information.
  • Within small groups, students can answer questions that can be marked and counted toward their grade
  • Consistency in the way a course is taught is important for team taught courses
  • Periods of reflection on the lecture, such as asking students to write what was the most important point just made, or answering questions promote student learning and retention
  • Once students come to expect alternatives to the 50 minute lecture, they are more accepting of being asked to learn actively and participate

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Discussants: John Connors, Allison Mostrom, Cathy Poon, John Porter and Jacquie Smith

Some Key Points that were touched upon during the discussion:

  • Corel or Powerpoint presentations are very useful for showing students large and complex sequences of events such as a cell death cascade. These sequential overheads can show the relationships and connections of these events. Students learn the concept of a cascade without having to memorize every detail in the process.
  • Publishing companies have developed Web sites to further explain material in their textbooks. These Web sites can be used to show recent developments in the field. Some times these developments were not mentioned in the textbook. The faculty member should preview these sites and can illustrate the most useful ones in class.
  • Electronic media can by very useful to off campus or flex students. Class notes can by posted on ERes.
  • A chat room can be used to help keep the dialogue alive between classes.
  • The instructor can e-mail students individually to give them feedback on written assignments or presentations.
  • Pictures can be scanned in and then shown to the class.
  • Student responses to questions posed in class can be put into the computer and then posted so students can hear and read the responses.
  • Cyberexams can be useful for self-assessments. Since individual grades are recorded, the instructor can monitor the student's progress during the semester.
  • Students can be given several Web sites. Their charge is to critically evaluate the site. This led to an interesting discussion on criteria for how sites can be evaluated.
  • The following Web Sites contain many useful tools for educators including criteria for evaluating Web sites.

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Discussants: Sue Barker, Lisa Davis, Nicole Duncan-Kinard, Tim McPherson, Clyde Ofner, and Suzanne Trump

Some key points that were touched on in the discussion:

  • Nicole Duncan-Kinard is very helpful when faculty are just starting out using ERes
  • All of the materials for a course, including the lecture outlines, assignments, sample test items, etc. can be put on Eres
    • This reduces faculty time dealing with course mechanics
    • This is helpful for the students, especially if they missed a class or misplaced a handout
    • Students enjoy having it all available and like using the technology
    • Since it is more costly to print from a computer than to make photocopies, handouts should still be given as paper copies
  • If lectures notes are available on Eres in advance of the class, students can use them as a foundation for their own note taking
    • Attendance drops if all lecture notes, especially detailed notes are available to the students
    • Faculty might need to change teaching strategy, moving away from a need to cover everything in lecture, to concentrating on critical thinking or emphasizing difficult material
  • Journal articles that we have a licensing agreement to post electronically can be put onto the Eres
  • Bulletin boards can be useful for students and faculty to post interesting facts

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Student Assessment Techniques: Multiple Choices
Discussants: Phyllis Blumberg, Annette Iglarsh, Lili Velez, Ken Leibowitz

Some key points that were touched on in the discussion:

Affective Domain:

  • Students assess themselves according to specific criteria and three level scale
  • Advisor reviews student self-assessment
  • Often leads to good discussions about performance
  • Same scale used repeatedly

Grading Essay Exams:

  • Specify what points expect
  • Establish model answers, criteria expected for each grade level
  • Explicitly tell students what you expect
  • Peers can be used to review assignments especially to look at writing

Ask students to complete following questions when they hand in papers/ take home exams:

  • What were you satisfied with on this assignment?
  • What were you not satisfied with on this assignment?
  • How much total time did you spend on this assignment?
  • How did you know when you were done?
  • What would you do differently now if you were to redo this assignment?

Multiple Choice Tests:

  • Develop a pool of items that have been used repeated
  • Semester to semester comparisons can be made
  • List the kind of item ( recall, comprehension, application, problem solving, etc.) on the exam itself
  • Analyze how student did by level of question

Students select grade by contract

  • Amount of assignments satisfactorily done equals grade in course
  • Students select grade at the beginning of the course, can do more to get higher grade, but not less to get lower grade

Classroom assessment techniques (CAT)

  • Efficient way to gather feedback on how students are doing in your class, how much they are learning
  • Important to tell students that you are making changes as a result of the feedback you have received from them
  • Start small, start with a course that is going well
  • 50 CAT's that have been described in literature
    • NSF has worked with faculty across the country to develop CAT's for science, math, health courses see
    • 1 simple CAT -1 minute paper:
      • ask students to write answers to these questions at end of class
        • What was the most important point you learned this class?
        • What important question remains unanswered?
      • Read over, sort into 3 piles - on target, close, missed point

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Web-supported courses

Discussants: Amy Christopher, Pam Johns, John Smith, Jacquie Smith

  • Amy Christopher and Leslie Ann Bowman have developed a sheet for students to use to evaluate Web sites asking students to consider accuracy, currency, scope of coverage, objectivity, ease of use, and authority.
  • Because USP uses the Web as a gateway to other purchased data, journals, etc, the students need to realize that all what they access through the Web at school is not free.
  • Web searching for material is a good starting point. It may not get them to specialized engines or technical sites.
  • Everyone who used material from the Web must accurately give the citation from the site including the date they accessed it and the date of site update.
  • On-line courses that are totally asynchronous might benefit from a scheduled time chat room.
  • It is hard to gage how much time the students are spending on a on-line course. Also it is hard to gage how much reading to give the students and what is worth three credits.
  • US Dept. of Defense has the most, best developed on-line or distance courses. They are available for us to look at them.
  • Presently none of the web-based instructional packages serve all needs for all courses. The features and services vary from company to company. Any platform that meets IMS standards should be transferable to other platforms.
  • As with any new instructional format, the first few weeks are slow for the students with them being less efficient.
  • Recommendations from the experts in terms of developing on-line or distance courses:
    • To convert an existing course- one should consider 6-8 weeks of work
    • One semester, of release time, is recommended for creating new on-line courses
    • Release time is strongly recommended
  • Courses on-line are more intense and take longer for the students and faculty than conventional time. Links must be checked periodically.
  • On-line courses need to have more material spelled out in greater detail than traditional, live courses. Pam John's syllabus for her on-line course on geriatrics is a good example.
  • On-line courses should be limited to 25 students per instructor or assistant.
  • MIT has on-line courses in biology
  • CD's should be used for sending students pictures as the down-loading time is slow and not always accurate from electronic transmissions.
  • A long term goal of developing Web- courses is they could be a continuing education course for non-matriculating USP students

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Using Multiple Intelligences to Improve Student Learning

Discussant: Lois Peck

  • About 15-20 years ago Howard Gardiner began developing his theory of Multiple Intelligences
  • This theory is still evolving, with additional intelligences being incorporated
  • Very popular in primary and secondary education, becoming more popular in higher education
  • Intelligences relate to how people process information
  • Humans have 8 intelligences:
    • Linguistic
    • Logical- mathematical
    • Spatial
    • Bodily - kinesthetic
    • Musical
    • Interpersonal
    • Intrapersonal
    • Naturalistic
  • Purpose of education is to foster and develop all 8 intelligences
  • Teaching styles should be varied to try to reach all 8 intelligences
  • Some people, including Dr. Ara Der Marderosian, have developed all 8 intelligences
  • Students respond to things differently depending on which intelligences are tapped
  • 2 authors especially recommended for higher education - Rene Dias- Lefebure and Ellen Weber (their major books will be available in the Teaching and Learning Center)

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