Microbiology (BS 241)

Reading Assignments
EXAM I (LECTURES 1-11)
The scope of microbiology  pp 2-4

Be able to describe these terms: immunology, epidemiology, biotechnology, genetic engineering, recombinant DNA technology.

Infectious diseases  p 10
Relate diseases in Fig. 1.7 to major groups (domain, kingdom and phylum) of microorganisms.

Microbial dimensions  p 7 (figure 1.4)
Know size ranges for eye, light microscope, and electron microscope and organisms generally visible in each range.

The microscope  pp 61-64
Know real image, virtual image, magnification of lenses, resolution, resolving power, numerical aperture, and formula for R.P.

Taxonomy  pp 18-23
Know taxonomy, classification, nomenclature, identification, levels of classification, Whittaker classification, and Woese-Fox classification.

Bacterial identification  p 114
Know examples of bacteria and their diseases in major groups of bacteria (Table 4.4): Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Bacillus, Clostridium, Corynebacterium, Mycobacterium, Nocardia, Neisseria, Bordetella, Pseudomonas, Legionella, Escherichia, Salmonella, Shigella, Klebsiella, Proteus, Yersinia, Vibrio, Treponema, Borrelia, Rickettsia, Chlamydia, Mycoplasma.

Bacterial shapes  pp 106-109
Know shapes, arrangements and specific examples mentioned in lecture.

The Gram stain  p 73
Know steps, colors, reagents (primary dye, mordant, decolorizer, counterstain) and theory (as discussed in lecture).

Exceptions in the cell wall pp 100-101
Know exceptions for Mycobacterium cell wall, archae, L forms, protoplast, spheroplast.

Isolation techniques pp 75-76
Know differences between pure, axenic, mixed, and contaminated cultures.

Environmental factors  pp 198-202
Know cardinal temperatures, psychrophile, psychrotroph, mesophile, thermophile, aerobe, obligate aerobe, facultative anaerobe, microaerophile, anaerobe, obligate anaerobe, aerotolerant anaerobe, capnophile.

Study of microbial growth  pp 207-211
Be able to describe and define the stages of the growth curve.

Transformation and transduction  pp 282-284
What is transformation? What is being transferred? How is it transferred? What is the outcome? What is transduction? What is generalized transduction? Specialized transduction? What is the outcome of specialized transduction?

Methods used to size, synthesize, and sequence DNA  pp 296-300
Be able to define or describe the function of  these terms: oligonucleotides, DNA sequencing, polymerase chain reaction, primer, DNA polymerase, amplicons. Why must heat tolerant polymerases be used?  What is the function of a dideoxy nucleotide?  Be able to describe the three basic steps of the PCR technique: denaturation, priming, and extension.

EXAM II (LECTURES 12-19)
Terminology  pp 322-323

Be able to define bactericide, fungicide, virucide, sporicide, germicide, disinfection, sepsis, asepsis, antisepsis, degermation.

Handscrubbing  p 344
Examine Figure 11.18 and be able to describe the influences of nongermicidal and germicidal soaps on handscrubbing.

How antimicrobial agents work  p 325
Why do detergents and alcohols effect cell walls? Are they more effective against gram-positive or gram-negative cell walls? Why?

Selecting antimicrobials  pp 377-380
What is the advantage of the Kirby-Bauer technique? The disadvantage? What is the advantage of an MIC? What is the therapeutic index? Why determine it? Is a smaller or larger ratio more toxic?

Antivirals  pp 367-369, 757
What are the specific uses for acyclovir, zidovudine (azidothymidine), ribavirin, protease inhibitors (saquinavir, indinavir), amantadine.

Antiparasitics  p 367
What are the specific uses for quinine, chloroquine, primaquine, metronidazole, mebendazole, thiabendazole.

EXAM III (LECTURES 20-29)
Fever  pp 441-442

What is normal temperature? How is it maintained? What do pyrogens do? What are the specific fever ranges for low, medium, high? What is the relationship of endotoxin to fever? Of interleukin-1? Of tumor necrosis factor? What are the benefits of fever? What are the recommendations for treatment of fever?

Leprosy  pp 590-593
What is the etiology? Morbidity worldwide? In USA? Transmission? Incubation? Describe tuberculoid leprosy. Describe lepromatous leprosy. Treatment?

Staphylococcal disease  pp 539-544
Describe the difference between a carbuncle and furuncle. What is impetigo? Osteomyelitis? SSSS?

Long-term complications of Group A Infections pp 552-553
What is AGN? The symptoms?

Immunological function  pp 473-475
What is the difference between artificial passive immunity and artificial active immunity? What is ISG? SIG?

EXAM IV (LECTURES 30-43)
Lyme disease  pp 634-636

What is the etiology? Transmission? Morbidity? Early treatment? Late treatment?

The Rickettsias  pp 642-646
What is the vector for epidemic typhus? Endemic typhus? Scrub typhus? Rocky Mountain Spotted fever? Cat-scratch disease? How is Q fever transmitted to humans? What treatment is recommended for these diseases?

The Chlamydiaciae  pp 646-649
What is the etiology of ocular trachoma? Inclusion conjunctivitis? Nongonococcal urethritis (NGU)? Ornithosis? What is the recommended treatment for these illnesses?

Viruses-structure  pp 158-169
What are the size ranges for viruses? What is a capsid? A nucleocapsid? An envelope? A naked nucleocapsid? A capsomer? What is a helical capsid? A polygon capsid? What is the function of the capsid? The envelope? What is a complex virus? A bacteriophage? What type of nucleic acid do viruses contain?

Variola  pp 726-728
What is variola? Describe its morbidity and mortality. What are the current vaccination recommendations?

Cytomegaloviruses  pp 733-734
What is congenital CMV? Perinatal CMV? Cytomegalovirus mononucleosis? Disseminated cytomegalovirus?

Epstein-Barr Virus  pp 734-736
What diseases are caused by this virus?

Influenza  pp 748-752
Basic structure (RNA or DNA?, Single or Double stranded?, Enveloped?), What is Hemagglutinin? Neuraminidase? Transmission? Treatment? Prevention?

Mumps  pp 754-755
What is epidemic parotitis? Complications? Treatment?

Measles  pp 755-756
What is rubeola? What are Koplik's spots? Transmission? Prevention?

Rabies  pp 757-758
Incubation? Contrast furious versus dumb forms of rabies. What is the use of HRIG? HDCV?

Fungi  pp 666-667; 675-681
What kind of mold is Histoplasma capsulatum? What is the principal treatment for histoplasmosis? What is the causative agent of tinea pedis? What is thrush? Vulvovaginal candidiasis? Onychomycosis? Cutaneous candidiasis? What is the importance of Pneumocystis (carinii) jiroveci? What is Aspergillosis? Zygomycosis?

Protista  p 687-700
What are the etiologic agents of Amebiasis, Balantidiosis, Giardiasis, Trichomoniasis, Trypanosomiasis, Malaria, and Toxoplasmosis? Which are ameboid? Ciliated? Flagellated? Apicomplexan?

Helminths  pp 703-714
What is the difference between the intermediate and definitive hosts? What are the etiologic agents for Ascariasis, Schistosomiasis (blood fluke), Beef tapeworm? Are they nematodes? Trematodes? Cestodes? Which leukocytes are most effective against these pathogens? What infections are mebendazole used for? What infections are praziquantel used for?
 
Each exam will include information from lectures and reading assignments