|EXAM I (LECTURES 1-11)
The scope of microbiology pp 2-4
Be able to describe these terms: immunology, epidemiology, biotechnology,
genetic engineering, recombinant DNA technology.
Infectious diseases p 10
Relate diseases in Fig. 1.7 to major groups (domain, kingdom and phylum)
Microbial dimensions p 7 (figure 1.4)
Know size ranges for eye, light microscope, and electron microscope and organisms
generally visible in each range.
The microscope pp 61-64
Know real image, virtual image, magnification of lenses, resolution, resolving power,
numerical aperture, and formula for R.P.
Taxonomy pp 18-23
Know taxonomy, classification, nomenclature, identification, levels
of classification, Whittaker classification, and Woese-Fox classification.
Bacterial identification p 114
Know examples of bacteria and their diseases in major groups of bacteria
(Table 4.4): Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Bacillus, Clostridium,
Corynebacterium, Mycobacterium, Nocardia, Neisseria, Bordetella, Pseudomonas,
Legionella, Escherichia, Salmonella, Shigella, Klebsiella, Proteus,
Yersinia, Vibrio, Treponema, Borrelia, Rickettsia, Chlamydia, Mycoplasma.
Bacterial shapes pp 106-109
Know shapes, arrangements and specific examples mentioned in lecture.
The Gram stain p 73
Know steps, colors, reagents (primary dye, mordant, decolorizer, counterstain) and theory
(as discussed in lecture).
Exceptions in the cell wall pp 100-101
Know exceptions for Mycobacterium cell wall, archae, L forms, protoplast, spheroplast.
Isolation techniques pp 75-76
Know differences between pure, axenic, mixed, and contaminated cultures.
Environmental factors pp 198-202
Know cardinal temperatures, psychrophile, psychrotroph, mesophile,
thermophile, aerobe, obligate aerobe, facultative anaerobe, microaerophile,
anaerobe, obligate anaerobe, aerotolerant anaerobe, capnophile.
Study of microbial growth pp 207-211
Be able to describe and define the stages of the growth curve.
Transformation and transduction pp 282-284
What is transformation? What is being transferred? How is it transferred?
What is the outcome? What is transduction? What is generalized transduction?
Specialized transduction? What is the outcome of specialized transduction?
Methods used to size, synthesize, and sequence DNA
Be able to define or describe the function of these terms: oligonucleotides,
DNA sequencing, polymerase chain reaction, primer, DNA polymerase,
amplicons. Why must heat tolerant polymerases be used? What
is the function of a dideoxy nucleotide? Be able to describe
the three basic steps of the PCR technique: denaturation, priming,
EXAM II (LECTURES 12-19)
Terminology pp 322-323
Be able to define bactericide, fungicide, virucide, sporicide, germicide, disinfection,
sepsis, asepsis, antisepsis, degermation.
Handscrubbing p 344
Examine Figure 11.18 and be able to describe the influences of nongermicidal
and germicidal soaps on handscrubbing.
How antimicrobial agents work p 325
Why do detergents and alcohols effect cell walls? Are they more effective against
gram-positive or gram-negative cell walls? Why?
Selecting antimicrobials pp 377-380
What is the advantage of the Kirby-Bauer technique? The disadvantage? What is the
advantage of an MIC? What is the therapeutic index? Why determine it? Is a smaller or
larger ratio more toxic?
Antivirals pp 367-369, 757
What are the specific uses for acyclovir, zidovudine (azidothymidine),
ribavirin, protease inhibitors (saquinavir, indinavir), amantadine.
Antiparasitics p 367
What are the specific uses for quinine, chloroquine, primaquine, metronidazole,
EXAM III (LECTURES 20-29)
Fever pp 441-442
What is normal temperature? How is it maintained? What do pyrogens
do? What are the specific fever ranges for low, medium, high? What
is the relationship of endotoxin to fever? Of interleukin-1? Of tumor
necrosis factor? What are the benefits of fever? What are the recommendations
for treatment of fever?
Leprosy pp 590-593
What is the etiology? Morbidity worldwide? In USA? Transmission? Incubation? Describe
tuberculoid leprosy. Describe lepromatous leprosy. Treatment?
Staphylococcal disease pp 539-544
Describe the difference between a carbuncle and furuncle. What is impetigo? Osteomyelitis?
Long-term complications of Group A Infections pp 552-553
What is AGN? The symptoms?
Immunological function pp 473-475
What is the difference between artificial passive immunity and artificial active immunity?
What is ISG? SIG?
EXAM IV (LECTURES 30-43)
Lyme disease pp 634-636
What is the etiology? Transmission? Morbidity? Early treatment? Late treatment?
The Rickettsias pp 642-646
What is the vector for epidemic typhus? Endemic typhus? Scrub typhus?
Rocky Mountain Spotted fever? Cat-scratch disease? How is Q fever
transmitted to humans? What treatment is recommended for these diseases?
The Chlamydiaciae pp 646-649
What is the etiology of ocular trachoma? Inclusion conjunctivitis? Nongonococcal
urethritis (NGU)? Ornithosis? What is the recommended treatment for these illnesses?
Viruses-structure pp 158-169
What are the size ranges for viruses? What is a capsid? A nucleocapsid? An envelope? A
naked nucleocapsid? A capsomer? What is a helical capsid? A polygon capsid? What is the
function of the capsid? The envelope? What is a complex virus? A bacteriophage? What type
of nucleic acid do viruses contain?
Variola pp 726-728
What is variola? Describe its morbidity and mortality. What are the current vaccination
Cytomegaloviruses pp 733-734
What is congenital CMV? Perinatal CMV? Cytomegalovirus mononucleosis? Disseminated
Epstein-Barr Virus pp 734-736
What diseases are caused by this virus?
Influenza pp 748-752
Basic structure (RNA or DNA?, Single or Double stranded?, Enveloped?),
What is Hemagglutinin? Neuraminidase? Transmission? Treatment? Prevention?
Mumps pp 754-755
What is epidemic parotitis? Complications? Treatment?
Measles pp 755-756
What is rubeola? What are Koplik's spots? Transmission? Prevention?
Rabies pp 757-758
Incubation? Contrast furious versus dumb forms of rabies. What is the use of HRIG? HDCV?
Fungi pp 666-667; 675-681
What kind of mold is Histoplasma capsulatum? What is the principal
treatment for histoplasmosis? What is the causative agent of tinea
pedis? What is thrush? Vulvovaginal candidiasis? Onychomycosis? Cutaneous
candidiasis? What is the importance of Pneumocystis (carinii) jiroveci?
What is Aspergillosis? Zygomycosis?
Protista p 687-700
What are the etiologic agents of Amebiasis, Balantidiosis, Giardiasis, Trichomoniasis,
Trypanosomiasis, Malaria, and Toxoplasmosis? Which are ameboid? Ciliated? Flagellated?
Helminths pp 703-714
What is the difference between the intermediate and definitive hosts?
What are the etiologic agents for Ascariasis, Schistosomiasis (blood
fluke), Beef tapeworm? Are they nematodes? Trematodes? Cestodes? Which
leukocytes are most effective against these pathogens? What infections
are mebendazole used for? What infections are praziquantel used for?
Each exam will include information from lectures and reading