Microbiology (BS 241)

Reading Assignments

Reading Assignments with Sample Additional Questions
EXAM I (LECTURES 1-11)
The scope of microbiology pp 2-4
What are the major groups of microorganisms? Which group (or groups) is (are) missing? Which group (or groups) is (are) not all microscopic? Which group (or groups) is (are) not organisms? Are microbes are found in all natural habitats? Are microbes are found in all habitats created by humans? Be able to describe these terms: immunology, epidemiology, public health microbiology, biotechnology, genetic engineering, recombinant DNA technology, agricultural microbiology, food microbiology.

Infectious diseases p 10
Relate diseases in Table 1.2 to major groups (domain, kingdom and phylum) of microorganisms. Microbial dimensions p 7 (figure 1.4): Know size ranges for eye, light microscope, and electron microscope and organisms generally visible in each range.

The microscope pp 63-65
Know real image, virtual image, magnification of lenses, resolution, resolving power, numerical aperture, and formula for R.P.

Taxonomy pp 18-24
Know taxonomy, classification, nomenclature, identification, levels of classification, Whittaker classification, and Woese-Fox classification.

Bacterial identification p 112
Know examples of bacteria and their diseases in major groups of bacteria (Table 4.4): Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Bacillus, Clostridium, Corynebacterium, Mycobacterium, Nocardia, Neisseria, Bordetella, Pseudomonas, Legionella, Escherichia, Salmonella, Shigella, Klebsiella, Proteus, Yersinia, Vibrio, Treponema, Borrelia, Rickettsia, Chlamydia, Mycoplasma.

Bacterial shapes p 106
Know shapes for specific examples mentioned in lecture.

The Gram stain p 73
Know steps, colors, reagents (primary dye, mordant, decolorizer, counterstain) and theory (as discussed in lecture).
Nontypical cell walls and Exceptions in the cell wall pp 99-100
Know exceptions for Mycobacterium cell wall, archaea, L forms, protoplast, spheroplast.

Isolation techniques pp 74-75
Know differences between pure (axenic), mixed, and contaminated cultures.

Environmental factors pp 198-202
Know optimum temperatures for a psychrophile, mesophile, thermophile, and extreme thermophile. What is a psychrotroph ? Give two examples of a psychotroph. Define obligate aerobe, facultative anaerobe, microaerophile, obligate anaerobe, aerotolerant anaerobe, capnophile.

Study of microbial growth pp 208-211
Be able to describe and define the stages of the growth curve.

Transformation and transduction pp 281-286
What are plasmids? How can plasmids replicate on their own? What is transformation? What is being transferred? How is it transferred? What is the outcome? What is transduction? What is generalized transduction? Specialized transduction? What is the outcome of specialized transduction?

Polymerase Chain Reaction pp 298-302
Be able to define or describe the following terms: polymerase chain reaction, primer, oligonucleotides, DNA polymerase, amplicons. Why must heat tolerant polymerases be used? What is the function of a dideoxy nucleotide? Be able to describe the three basic steps of the PCR technique: denaturation, priming, and extension.

EXAM II (LECTURES 12-19)
Terminology pp 324-325, lecture material
Be able to define bactericide, fungicide, virucide, sporicide, germicide, disinfection, bacteremia, SIRS, sepsis, severe sepsis, septic shock.

Handscrubbing p 346
Examine Figure 11.16 and be able to describe the influences of nongermicidal and germicidal soaps on handscrubbing.

How antimicrobial agents work p 327
How do detergents and alcohols affect cell walls? Are they more effective against gram-positive or gram-negative cell walls? Why?

Selecting antimicrobials pp 380-382
What is the advantage of the Kirby-Bauer technique? The disadvantage? What is the advantage of an MIC? What is the therapeutic index? Why determine it? Is a smaller or larger ratio more toxic?

Antivirals pp 369-371, 770
What are the specific uses for acyclovir, zidovudine (azidothymidine), ribavirin, saquinavir, oseltamivir.

Antiparasitics p 368
What are the specific uses for quinine, chloroquine, primaquine, metronidazole, mebendazole, thiabendazole.

EXAM III (LECTURES 20-29)
Fever pp 444-445
What is normal temperature? How is it maintained? What do pyrogens do? What are the specific fever ranges for low, medium, high? What is the relationship of endotoxin to fever? Of interleukin-1? Of tumor necrosis factor? What are the benefits of fever? What are the recommendations for treatment of fever?

Leprosy pp 595-597
What is the etiology? Morbidity worldwide? In USA? Transmission? Incubation? Describe tuberculoid leprosy. Describe lepromatous leprosy. Treatment?

Staphylococcal disease pp 546-548
Describe the difference between a carbuncle and furuncle. What is bullous impetigo? Osteomyelitis? SSSS?

Long-term complications of Group A Infections pp 556
What is AGN? The symptoms?

Immunological function pp 476-478
What is the difference between artificial passive immunity and artificial active immunity? What is ISG? What is ISG a treatment of choice for? What is SIG? Is HRIG an ISG or SIG?


EXAM IV (LECTURES 30-40)
Lyme disease pp 641-643
What is the etiology? Transmission? Morbidity? Early treatment? Late treatment?

Variola pp 737-739
What is variola? Describe its morbidity and mortality. What are the current vaccination recommendations?

Influenza pp 760-765
Basic structure (RNA or DNA?, Single or Double stranded?, Enveloped?), What is Hemagglutinin? Neuraminidase? Transmission? Treatment? Prevention?

Mumps pp 767-768
What is epidemic parotitis? Complications? Treatment? Prevention?

Measles pp 768-770
What is rubeola? What are Koplik's spots? Transmission? Prevention?

Rabies pp 770-772
Incubation? Contrast furious versus dumb forms of rabies. What is the use of HRIG? HDCV?

Fungi pp 667; 673-675; 682,684-685;686-688.
What does thermal dimorphism mean in reference to Histoplasma capsulatum? What is the principal drug for treatment of histoplasmosis? What is the causative agent of tinea pedis? What is thrush? Vulvovaginal candidiasis? Onychomycosis? Intertriginous candidiasis? What is the importance of Pneumocystis (carinii) jiroveci? What is Aspergillosis? Zygomycosis?

Protista p 696-711
What are the etiologic agents of Amebiasis, Balantidiosis, Giardiasis, Trichomoniasis, Trypanosomiasis, Malaria, and Toxoplasmosis? Which are ameboid? Ciliated? Flagellated? Apicomplexan?

Helminths pp 713-725
What is the difference between the intermediate and definitive hosts? What are the etiologic agents for Ascariasis, Schistosomiasis (blood fluke), Beef tapeworm? Are they nematodes? Trematodes? Cestodes? Which leukocytes are most effective against these pathogens? Which of these infections is mebendazole used for? What infections are praziquantel used for?

Each exam will include information from lectures and reading assignments