Chapter 19, Pages 411-418.
What is a gene pool? How do you determine allele frequencies
for a gene pool? What is the Hardy-Weinberg principle? How do you
determine genotype frequencies for a gene pool? Why is the Hardy-Weinberg
rule important? What factors cause change in the genetic structure
of a population? What is gene flow? What is genetic drift? What is
a bottleneck? What is a founder effect? Give examples of nonrandom
mating? What is the influence of natural selection on the Hardy-
Chapter 19, Pages 418-420. What
are the three basic types of selection?
Chapter 23 Systematics, pp 482-497.
Be able to define and understand
the proper use of these terms: systematics, taxonomy, classification,
specific epithet, genus, family, order, class, phylum, kingdom, domain,
taxon. What are the three domains. How many kingdoms are there used
to classify organisms in your text. Be able to define these kingdoms
and domains.Be able to draw a branching tree diagram to show the evolutionary
relationship of these groups. What is phylogeny? Homology? Homoplasy?
A plesiomorphic character? A synapomorphic character? What types of
macromolecules are used for molecular systemtics? What is the difference
between a monophyletic, paraphyletic, and polyphyletic taxon? What
is the difference between evolutionary and phylogenetic systematics?
Understand the principle of parsimony in selecting cladograms.
Chapter 26 Protists, pp 537-558. Define
protists. What are protozoa? Be able to describe and give examples
of organisms in the following groups: Excavates, Chromalveolates,
Rhizarians, Archaeplastids, Unikonts. What are the means of locomotion
for these organisms? What common name is given to photosynthetic protists?
Why are red algae and green algae classified with Plants in your text?
Why are brown algae not classified with plants in your text? Define
the algal groups (dinoflagellata, bacillariophyta, chrysophyta, phaeophyta,
chlorophyta, and rhodophyta) based upon their pigment composition
and energy storage compounds.
Chapter 29 Fungi, pp 601-623. Be able to define these terms:
hyphae, mycelium, coenocytic, septa, dikaryotic, monokaryotic. What
are the chytridiomycetes? What are their characteristics? How do zygomycota
reproduce asexually? sexually? What type of hyphae do they have? Give
an example of a zygomycete. How do ascomycetes reproduce asexually?
sexually? What type of hyphae do they have? Give an examples
of ascomycetes. How do basidiomycetes reproduce asexually? sexually?
What type of hyphae do they have? Give examples of basidiomycetes.
What are imperfect fungi?
Chapter 27 Plants without seeds, pp 561-579. Answer the following
questions for each of the groups listed: Are they vascular plants
or nonvascular plants? Do they have seeds? Is the major part of their
life cycle diploid or haploid? Which have cones? Which have flowers?
Which have fruits? Which have roots, stems, leaves? (mosses, club
mosses, horse tails, whisk ferns, ferns, pines, flowering plants)
Chapter 30 Animals, pp 627-637. Be
able to define and understand the proper use of these terms: parazoa,
eumetazoa, radial symmetry, biradial symmetry, bilateral symmetry,
ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm, diploblastic, triploblastic, coelom,
acoelomate, pseudocoelomate, protostomes, deuterostomes. Be able to
describe the following groups as to body cavity, protosomate or deuterostomate,
body symmetry, level of organization, digestion, and circulation:
Porifera, Cnidarians, Ctenophores, Platyhelminths, Nemertea, Rotifera,
Chapter 39 Histology, pp 822-830
Using your text, be able to recognize (by picture), describe, and
develop a dichotomous key for the following tissues: Epithelial- simple
squamous, simple cuboidal, simple columnar, pseudostratified columnar,
stratified squamous, stratified cuboidal, stratified columnar; Connective
tissue- areolar, adipose, dense connective tissue, hyaline cartilage,
fibrocartilage, elastic cartilage, bone, neutrophils, eosinophils,
basophils, monocytes, lymphocytes; Muscular tissue- smooth
muscle, skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle; Nervous tissue- neurons,
Chapter 47 Digestion, pp 1012-1017
Are animals autotrophs or heterotrophs? Define herbivore, carnivore,
omnivore. Be able to give specific examples of animals with no digestive
system, with gastrovascular cavity, with a complete digestive system.
Be able to describe differences in dentition of herbivores, carnivores,
Chapter 44 Circulatory systems, pp 938-946. Which groups
of organisms have no circulatory system? Which have an open circulatory
system? Which have a closed circulatory system? What is hemocyanin?
How does it differ from hemoglobin? What is erythropoietin and what
does it do? Which vertebrates have a two-chambered heart? A three-chambered
heart? A four-chambered heart?
Chapter 46 Gas exchange, pp 993-1003. What is organismic
respiration? What is cellular respiration? What is ventilation? Give
examples of organisms which exchange gases using diffusion only. Which
animals use tracheal tubes for respiration? What is myoglobin?
Chapter 48 Water balance, pp 1034-1041. What is
the difference between an osmoconformer and an osmoregulator? Give
examples of each. Give examples of animals that need no
specialized excretory structures. That use protonephridia. That use
metanephridia. That use malpighian tubules. What is the difference
between a ureter and a urethra? The renal medulla and the renal cortex?
What is the renal pelvis?