Introductory Biology (BS 131)

Reading Assignments- a short quiz will be given at the beginning of lecture to test completion of reading assignment.

EXAM I
Chapter 19, Pages 411-418. What is a gene pool?  How do you determine allele frequencies for a gene pool? What is the Hardy-Weinberg principle? How do you determine genotype frequencies for a gene pool? Why is the Hardy-Weinberg rule important? What factors cause change in the genetic structure of a population? What is gene flow? What is genetic drift? What is a bottleneck? What is a founder effect? Give examples of nonrandom mating? What is the influence of natural selection on the Hardy-
Weinberg principle?

Chapter 19, Pages 418-420. What are the three basic types of selection?

Chapter 23 Systematics, pp 482-497. Be able to define and understand the proper use of these terms: systematics, taxonomy, classification, specific epithet, genus, family, order, class, phylum, kingdom, domain, taxon. What are the three domains. How many kingdoms are there used to classify organisms in your text. Be able to define these kingdoms and domains.Be able to draw a branching tree diagram to show the evolutionary relationship of these groups. What is phylogeny? Homology? Homoplasy? A plesiomorphic character? A synapomorphic character? What types of macromolecules are used for molecular systemtics? What is the difference between a monophyletic, paraphyletic, and polyphyletic taxon? What is the difference between evolutionary and phylogenetic systematics? Understand the principle of parsimony in selecting cladograms.
 

Chapter 26 Protists, pp 537-558.  
Define protists. What are protozoa? Be able to describe and give examples of organisms in the following groups: Excavates, Chromalveolates, Rhizarians, Archaeplastids, Unikonts. What are the means of locomotion for these organisms? What common name is given to photosynthetic protists? Why are red algae and green algae classified with Plants in your text? Why are brown algae not classified with plants in your text? Define the algal groups (dinoflagellata, bacillariophyta, chrysophyta, phaeophyta, chlorophyta, and rhodophyta) based upon their pigment composition and energy storage compounds.  


EXAM II
Chapter 29 Fungi, pp 601-623
. Be able to define these terms: hyphae, mycelium, coenocytic, septa, dikaryotic, monokaryotic. What are the chytridiomycetes? What are their characteristics? How do zygomycota reproduce asexually? sexually? What type of hyphae do they have? Give an example of a zygomycete. How do ascomycetes reproduce asexually? sexually? What type of hyphae do they have?  Give an examples of ascomycetes. How do basidiomycetes reproduce asexually? sexually? What type of hyphae do they have? Give examples of basidiomycetes. What are imperfect fungi? 

Chapter 27 Plants without seeds, pp 561-579
. Answer the following questions for each of the groups listed:  Are they vascular plants or nonvascular plants? Do they have seeds? Is the major part of their life cycle diploid or haploid? Which have cones? Which have flowers? Which have fruits? Which have roots, stems, leaves? (mosses, club mosses, horse tails, whisk ferns, ferns, pines, flowering plants)

Chapter 30 Animals,  pp 627-637. 
Be able to define and understand the proper use of these terms: parazoa, eumetazoa, radial symmetry, biradial symmetry, bilateral symmetry, ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm, diploblastic, triploblastic, coelom, acoelomate, pseudocoelomate, protostomes, deuterostomes. Be able to describe the following groups as to body cavity, protosomate or deuterostomate, body symmetry, level of organization, digestion, and circulation: Porifera, Cnidarians, Ctenophores, Platyhelminths, Nemertea, Rotifera, Nematoda. 

EXAM IV
Chapter 39 Histology,  pp 822-830

Using your text, be able to recognize (by picture), describe, and develop a dichotomous key for the following tissues: Epithelial- simple squamous, simple cuboidal, simple columnar, pseudostratified columnar, stratified squamous, stratified cuboidal, stratified columnar; Connective tissue- areolar, adipose, dense connective tissue, hyaline cartilage, fibrocartilage, elastic cartilage, bone, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, monocytes,  lymphocytes;  Muscular tissue- smooth muscle, skeletal muscle,  cardiac muscle; Nervous tissue- neurons, glial cells.

Chapter 47 Digestion,  pp 1012-1017
Are animals autotrophs or heterotrophs? Define herbivore, carnivore, omnivore. Be able to give specific examples of animals with no digestive system, with gastrovascular cavity, with a complete digestive system. Be able to describe differences in dentition of herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores. 

Chapter 44 Circulatory systems, pp 938-946.
Which groups of organisms have no circulatory system? Which have an open circulatory system? Which have a closed circulatory system? What is hemocyanin? How does it differ from hemoglobin? What is erythropoietin and what does it do? Which vertebrates have a two-chambered heart? A three-chambered heart? A four-chambered heart?

Chapter 46 Gas exchange, pp 993-1003. What is organismic respiration? What is cellular respiration? What is ventilation? Give examples of organisms which exchange gases using diffusion only. Which animals use tracheal tubes for respiration? What is myoglobin? 

Chapter 48 Water balance, pp 1034-1041. What is the difference between an osmoconformer and an osmoregulator? Give examples of each.   Give examples of animals that need no specialized excretory structures. That use protonephridia. That use metanephridia. That use malpighian tubules. What is the difference between a ureter and a urethra? The renal medulla and the renal cortex? What is the renal pelvis?