Introductory Biology
Exam IV                        Name ____________

PART I - Multiple choice. Circle the correct answer
for each question.
1. Hormone produced by the stomach lining.
     a. zymogen
     b. secretin
     c. gastrin
     d. enterogastrone
     e. cholecystokinin

2. Hormone which stimulates the gallbladder to
    release bile.
     a. zymogen
     b. secretin
     c. gastrin
     d. enterogastrone
     e. cholecystokinin

3. Breathing is usually regulated by
      a. erythrocyte levels in the blood.
      b. the concentration of red blood cells.
      c. hemoglobin levels in the blood.
      d. CO2 and O2 concentration and pH-level
          sensors.

      e. the lungs and the larynx.

4. Contractile vacuoles most likely would be
      found in
      a. protists in a marine environment.
      b. protists that are internal parasites.
      c. earthworms. 
      d. insects.
      e. protists that are hyperosmotic to their
          environment.

5. What is the process by which materials are
      returned to the blood from the nephron fluid
      called?
      a. filtration
      b. ultrafiltration
      c. reabsorption
      d. secretion
      e. active transport

6. All of the following are functions of the
      mammalian kidney EXCEPT
      a. water retention.
      b. filtration of blood.
      c. excretion of nitrogenous waste.
      d. regulation of salt balance in the blood.
      e. production of urea as a waste product
            of protein catabolism.

7. Which of the following statements about the
      transfer of fluid from the glomerulus to
      Bowman's capsule is correct?
      a. It results from active transport.
      b. It transfers large molecules as easily as
          small ones.
      c. It is very selective as to which small
          molecules are transferred.
      d. It is mainly a consequence of blood
          pressure force-filtering the fluid.

      e. It usually includes the transfer of red
          blood cells to the nephron tubule.

8. Which of the following processes is correct
     for the loop of Henle?
      a. water enters the descending loop
      b. the filtrate is hypotonic at the bottom of
          the loop
      c. sodium diffuses through the ascending
          loop

      d. the filtrate is hypertonic at the top of the
          ascending loop
      e. secretion occurs here

9. Which part of the vertebrate nephron 
     consists  of capillaries?
      a. glomerulus
      b. loop of Henle
      c. distal tubule
      d. Bowman's capsule
      e. collecting tubule

10. Which of the following statements regarding
      antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is true?
      a. its presence influences permeability of the
          loop of Henle
      b. its presence influences selectivity of
          filtration in the glomerulus
      c. its presence decreases permeability of the
          collecting duct to water
      d. its presence increases permeability of
            the collecting duct to water

      e. it is produced by the liver

11. Which of the following statements regarding
      the distal convoluted tubules is correct?
      a. substances such as potassium and
          hydrogen ions are removed from the
          filtrate here.
      b. hemoglobin is actively removed from red
          blood cells here.
      c. drugs such as penicillin may be secreted
          into the filtrate here.

      d. most water is reabsorbed here.
      e. ADH is produced here.

12. When _______ your diaphragm _________.
      a. inhaling -- relaxes.
      b. exhaling -- contracts.
      c. inhaling -- contracts.

13. Which of the following excretory organs
      contains flame cells?
      a. metanephridium
      b. Malpighian tubules
      c. protonephridium
      d. kidney
      e. contractile vavuole

14. The excretory organ of the insect is called the
      a. nephron
      b. metanephridium
      c. anntenal glands
      d. protonephridium
      e. Malpighian tubule

15. In the nephron, the first step in urine
      formation is ____ and occurs in the ____.
      a. filtration -- efferent arteriole
      b. secretion -- proximal convoluted tubule
      c. filtration -- glomerulus/Bowman's 
           capsule

      d. reabsorption -- distal convoluted tubule

16. Which pathway is correct? 
      a. efferent capillary--peritubular
          capillary--afferent cappillary--glomerulus
      b. efferent capillary--afferent
          capillary--peritubular capillary--glomerulus
      c. afferent capillary--glomerulus--efferent
          capillary--peritubular capillary

      d. afferent capillary--glomerulus--peritubular
          capillary--efferent capillary

17. Urea is produced by a metabolic cycle that
      combines ammonia and carbon dioxide. This
      process occurs in the
      a. kidney
      b. pancreas
      c. bladder
      d. liver
      e. gall bladder

18 . Most of the carbon dioxide carried by the
      blood is carried as
      a. bicarbonate ion in the plasma.
      b. CO2 attached to hemoglobin.
      c. carbonic acid in the erythrocytes.
      d. CO2 dissolved in the plasma.
      e. bicarbonate attached to hemoglobin.

19. What is the reason why fluid is forced out of
      systemic capillaries at the arteriolar end?
      a. The osmotic pressure of the interstitial
          fluid is greater than that of the blood.
      b. The hydrostatic pressure of the blood is
          less than that of the interstitial fluid.
      c. The hydrostatic pressure of the blood is
          greater than the osmotic pressure of the
          interstitial fluid.

      d. The osmotic pressure of the interstitial
          fluid is greater than the hydrostatic
          pressure of the blood.
      e. The osmotic pressure of the blood is
          greater than the hydrostatic pressure of
          the interstitial fluid.

20. Which sequence is INCORRECT?
      a. left ventricle --> aorta
      b. right ventricle --> pulmonary vein
      c. pulmonary vein --> left atrium
      d. vena cava --> right atrium
      e. right ventricle --> pulmonary artery

21. Which of these animals has a gastrovascular cavity?
     a. bird
     b. hydra
     c. mammal
     d. insect
     e. annelid

22. A digestive juice with a pH of 2 probably came from the
     a. mouth.
     b. stomach.
     c. pancreas.
     d. esophagus.
     e. small intestine.

23. What are essential amino acids?
     a. those that are absent in fruits and vegetables
     b. the only amino acids found in human  proteins
     c. generally more abundantly present in
         vegetables than in meat
     d. one class of vitamins that is indispensable
         for neurological development
     e. molecules obtained from food in a
         prefabricated form because they
         can't be synthesized by most animals

24. The bicarbonate that neutralizes the acidity of
    chyme is produced by the
     a. gall bladder
     b. large intestine
     c. pancreas
     d. stomach
     e. liver

25. Where does most reabsorption of most of the
    water used in digestion occur?
     a. duodenum
     b. ileum
     c. jejunum
     d. large intestine
     e. stomach

26. Most enzymatic hydrolysis of the
    macromolecules in food occurs in the
     a. small intestine.
     b. large intestine.
     c. stomach.
     d. liver.
     e. mouth.

27 . An example of a fat-soluble vitamin is
     a. vitamin A
     b. vitamin B-12.
     c. vitamin C.
     d. iodine.
     e. biotin.

28. Hormone produced by the stomach lining.
     a. zymogen
     b. secretin
     c. gastrin
     d. enterogastrone
     e. cholecystokinin

29 . Hormone which stimulates the gallbladder to release bile.
     a. zymogen
     b. secretin
     c. gastrin
     d. enterogastrone
     e. cholecystokinin

30. Essential amino acid.
     a. glutamic acid
     b. niacin
     c. lipoproteins
     d. lysine
     e. thiamine

31. You take a bite of your sandwich. While you
      are chewing it up:
      a. your tongue lies passively on the floor of
          your mouth.
      b. initial digestion of its carbohydrates
             begins.

      c. enzymes in your saliva begin digesting the
          proteins.
      d. both a and b are correct
      e. both a and c are correct

32. Bile
      a. is stored in the gall bladder.
      b. contains the enzyme lipase.
      c. is produced by the stomach.
      d. both a and c are correct.
      e. is stored in the duodenum.

Short Answer.

1. True or False? In mammals, all arteries carry
    blood toward the heart and all veins carry
    blood away from the heart.

2. The phase of the heart cycle during which the
    ventricles are filling is called? diastole

3. True or False? A blood pressure reading of
    120/80 means that the diastolic reading is
    120 mm Hg and and the systolic reading is
    80 mm Hg.

4. In vertebrates, urine passes from the kidney
     to the bladder through a duct called the?
     ureter

5. True or False? In humans, only about 10% of
     the urine filtrate is excreted as urine and the
     rest is reabsorbed.

6. Blood leaves the glomerules by the?
      efferent arterioles

7. True or False? The fluid leaving the ascending
    loop of Henle is hypoosmotic to the blood
    plasma.

8. Animals that eat only plants are called? herbivores
   

9 . Which sphincter muscle controls entry of food
    into the stomach? lower esophageal

10. The large intestine in humans begins with 
      the ?, which has a small role in the body's
     defense. appendix


Part III- Essay. Answer each question in the
space provided. The value of each question is
indicated in parenthesis.

1. The maximum amount of air a person can
      exhale after filling the lungs to maximum
      extent is known as? (2pt)
         vital capacity

2. Define these terms as they apply to gas
     exchange (6 pt):
     ventilation --move water or gas over respiratory surface
    
Adam's apple --larynx
     windpipe --trachea

3. Discuss chemical and pressure control of
    breathing (6 pt).
CO2 in blood increases H+ concentration, which is detected by the medulla, and increases rate and depth of breathing until CO2 is removed. Oxygen, when low enough, is sensed by receptors in the carotids and aorta, and increases the rate and depth of breathing until  levels rise again.   


4
. Describe specifically the heterodont dentition
     of humans. (4 pt)
8 incisors
4 cuspids
8 bicuspids or premolars
12 molars


5. Define these terms (8 pt):
     deglutition--swallowing
     enterogastrone--inhibits stomach peristalsis
     anabolism--building up molecules
     edema-- excess fluid in areolar tissue

6. In reference to metabolism, what is the
     difference between elimination and excretion?
     (4 pt)
       elimination is getting rid of digestive wastes
excretion is getting rid of metabolic wastes

7. Describe the importance of the following
     minerals (6 pt):
     Fe -- cytochromes, hemoglobin
     Cu, Zn -- cofactors of enzymes
     Ca, P -- bone, muscle function