I - Multiple choice. Circle the correct answer
for each question.
1. Hormone produced by the stomach lining.
2. Hormone which stimulates
the gallbladder to
3. Breathing is usually regulated
a. erythrocyte levels in the blood.
b. the concentration of red blood cells.
c. hemoglobin levels in the blood.
d. CO2 and O2
concentration and pH-level
e. the lungs and the larynx.
4. Contractile vacuoles most
likely would be
a. protists in a marine environment.
b. protists that are internal parasites.
e. protists that are hyperosmotic
5. What is the process by which
returned to the blood from the nephron
e. active transport
6. All of the following are
functions of the
mammalian kidney EXCEPT
a. water retention.
b. filtration of blood.
c. excretion of nitrogenous waste.
d. regulation of salt balance in the
e. production of urea as a
of protein catabolism.
7. Which of the following statements
transfer of fluid from the glomerulus
Bowman's capsule is correct?
a. It results from active transport.
b. It transfers large molecules as
c. It is very selective as to which
d. It is mainly a consequence
e. It usually includes the transfer
to the nephron tubule.
8. Which of the following processes
for the loop of Henle?
a. water enters the descending loop
b. the filtrate is hypotonic at the
c. sodium diffuses through
d. the filtrate is hypertonic at the
top of the
e. secretion occurs here
9. Which part of the vertebrate
consists of capillaries?
b. loop of Henle
c. distal tubule
d. Bowman's capsule
e. collecting tubule
10. Which of the following
antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is true?
a. its presence influences permeability
loop of Henle
b. its presence influences selectivity
in the glomerulus
c. its presence decreases permeability
duct to water
d. its presence increases permeability
the collecting duct to water
e. it is produced by the liver
11. Which of the following
the distal convoluted tubules is correct?
a. substances such as potassium and
are removed from the
b. hemoglobin is actively removed from
c. drugs such as penicillin
may be secreted
into the filtrate
d. most water is reabsorbed here.
e. ADH is produced here.
12. When _______ your diaphragm
a. inhaling -- relaxes.
b. exhaling -- contracts.
c. inhaling -- contracts.
13. Which of the following
contains flame cells?
b. Malpighian tubules
e. contractile vavuole
14. The excretory organ of
the insect is called the
c. anntenal glands
e. Malpighian tubule
15. In the nephron, the first
step in urine
formation is ____ and occurs in the
a. filtration -- efferent arteriole
b. secretion -- proximal convoluted
c. filtration -- glomerulus/Bowman's
d. reabsorption -- distal convoluted
16. Which pathway is correct?
a. efferent capillary--peritubular
b. efferent capillary--afferent
c. afferent capillary--glomerulus--efferent
d. afferent capillary--glomerulus--peritubular
17. Urea is produced by a metabolic
combines ammonia and carbon dioxide.
process occurs in the
e. gall bladder
18 . Most of the carbon dioxide carried by the
blood is carried as
a. bicarbonate ion in the plasma.
b. CO2 attached to hemoglobin.
c. carbonic acid in the erythrocytes.
d. CO2 dissolved in the plasma.
e. bicarbonate attached to hemoglobin.
19. What is the reason why fluid is forced out of
systemic capillaries at the arteriolar
a. The osmotic pressure of the interstitial
fluid is greater
than that of the blood.
b. The hydrostatic pressure of the
less than that
of the interstitial fluid.
c. The hydrostatic pressure
of the blood is
the osmotic pressure of the
d. The osmotic pressure of the interstitial
fluid is greater
than the hydrostatic
e. The osmotic pressure of the blood
the hydrostatic pressure of
20. Which sequence is INCORRECT?
a. left ventricle --> aorta
b. right ventricle --> pulmonary
c. pulmonary vein --> left atrium
d. vena cava --> right atrium
e. right ventricle --> pulmonary
21. Which of these animals
has a gastrovascular cavity?
22. A digestive juice with a pH of 2 probably came from the
e. small intestine.
23. What are essential amino acids?
a. those that are absent in fruits and vegetables
b. the only amino acids found in human
c. generally more abundantly present in
vegetables than in
d. one class of vitamins that is indispensable
e. molecules obtained from food in
can't be synthesized
by most animals
24. The bicarbonate that neutralizes the acidity of
chyme is produced by the
a. gall bladder
b. large intestine
25. Where does most reabsorption of most of the
water used in digestion occur?
d. large intestine
26. Most enzymatic hydrolysis of the
macromolecules in food occurs in the
a. small intestine.
b. large intestine.
27 . An example of a fat-soluble vitamin is
a. vitamin A
b. vitamin B-12.
c. vitamin C.
28. Hormone produced by the
29 . Hormone which stimulates the gallbladder to release bile.
30. Essential amino acid.
a. glutamic acid
31. You take a bite of your sandwich. While you
are chewing it up:
a. your tongue lies passively on the
b. initial digestion of its
c. enzymes in your saliva begin digesting
d. both a and b are correct
e. both a and c are correct
a. is stored in the gall bladder.
b. contains the enzyme lipase.
c. is produced by the stomach.
d. both a and c are correct.
e. is stored in the duodenum.
1. True or False? In mammals, all arteries carry
blood toward the heart and all veins carry
blood away from the heart.
2. The phase of the heart cycle during which the
ventricles are filling is called? diastole
3. True or False? A blood pressure reading of
120/80 means that the diastolic reading is
120 mm Hg and and the systolic reading is
80 mm Hg.
4. In vertebrates, urine passes from the kidney
to the bladder through a duct called the?
5. True or False? In humans, only about 10% of
the urine filtrate is excreted as urine and
rest is reabsorbed.
6. Blood leaves the glomerules by the?
7. True or False? The fluid leaving the ascending
loop of Henle is hypoosmotic to the blood
Animals that eat only plants are called? herbivores
9 . Which sphincter muscle controls entry of food
into the stomach? lower esophageal
10. The large intestine in humans begins with
the ?, which has a small role in the
Part III- Essay. Answer each question in the
space provided. The value of each question is
indicated in parenthesis.
1. The maximum amount of air
a person can
exhale after filling the lungs to maximum
extent is known as? (2pt)
2. Define these terms as they
apply to gas
exchange (6 pt):
--move water or gas over respiratory surface
3. Discuss chemical and pressure
breathing (6 pt).
CO2 in blood increases H+ concentration, which is detected
by the medulla, and increases rate and depth of breathing until CO2
is removed. Oxygen, when low enough, is sensed by receptors in the
carotids and aorta, and increases the rate and depth of breathing
until levels rise again.
4. Describe specifically
the heterodont dentition
of humans. (4 pt)
5. Define these terms
anabolism--building up molecules
edema-- excess fluid in areolar tissue
6. In reference to metabolism,
what is the
difference between elimination and excretion?
elimination is getting
rid of digestive wastes
excretion is getting rid of metabolic wastes
7. Describe the importance
of the following
minerals (6 pt):
Fe -- cytochromes, hemoglobin
Cu, Zn -- cofactors of enzymes
P -- bone, muscle function