Introductory Biology
Exam III                     Name ________________

PART I - Multiple choice. Circle the correct answer
for each question.
1. Deuterostomes include
      a. annelids
      b. echinoderms
      c. mollusks
      d. both a and c

2. Which of the following is a shared characteristic of all
     chordates? 
     a. hair
     b. skull
     c. notochord
     d. vertebral column
     e. four-chambered heart

3. What is one characteristic which separates
     chordates from all other animals?
     a. true coelom
     b. hollow dorsal nerve cord
     c. blastopore, which becomes the anus
     d. bilateral symmetry
     e. segmentation

4. Some members have a cartilaginous  endoskeleton.
     a. amphibia
     b. aves
     c. chondrichthyes
     d. mammalia
     e. reptilia

5. Three major groups: egg-laying, pouched, and  placental.
     a. amphibia
     b. aves
     c. chondrichthyes
     d. mammalia
     e. reptilia

6. Includes salamanders, frogs and toads.
     a. amphibia
     b. aves
     c. chondrichthyes
     d. mammalia
     e. reptilia

7. Includes snakes, turtles, and lizards.
     a. amphibia
     b. aves
     c. chondrichthyes
     d. mammalia
     e. reptilia

8. Which one of the following has a two-chambered heart?
     a. osteichthyes
     b. amphibia
     c. reptilia
     d. aves
     e. mammalia

9. Which of the following structures are characteristic of
       vertebrates?
     a. open circulatory system
     b. pharyngeal slits
     c. dorsal hollow nerve cord
     d. pharyngeal slits and dorsal hollow nerve
         cord

     e. open circulatory system, pharyngeal slits,
         and dorsal hollow nerve cord

10. All of the following are protostomes EXCEPT
      a. mollusks
      b. echinoderms
      c. segmented worms
      d. insects
      e. spiders

11. Which epithelial tissue varies in number of  layers and shape?
     a. simple squamous
     b. simple cuboidal
     c. pseudostratified columnar
     d. stratified cuboidal
     e. stratified columnar

12. What is stratified cuboidal epithelium composed of?
     a. several layers of boxlike cells
      b. a hierarchical arrangement of flat cells
      c. a tight layer of square cells attached to a
          basement membrane
      d. an irregularly arranged layer of pillarlike cells
      e. a layer of ciliated, mucus-secreting cells
          lining a body cavity

13. White blood cells that mature into macrophages are called:
      a. eosinophils
      b. neutrophils
      c. basophils
     d. monocytes
      e. lymphocytes

14. Stratified columnar is a description that might
      apply to what type of animal tissue?
      a. connective
      b. striated muscle
      c. nerve
     d. epithelial
      e. bone

15 . The epithelium best adapted for a body
      surface subject to abrasion is
      a. simple squamous.
      b. simple cuboidal.
      c. simple columnar.
      d. stratified columnar.
     e. stratified squamous.

16. Muscles are joined to bones by
      a. ligaments.
      b. tendons.
      c. loose connective tissue.
      d. Haversian systems.
      e. positive feedback.

17 . The fibroblasts secrete
      a. fats.  
      b. chondrin.
      c. interstitial fluids.
      d. calcium phosphate for bone.
     e. proteins for connective fibers.

18 . Which type of muscle is responsible for
      peristalsis along the digestive tract?
      a. cardiac
      b. visceral
      c. voluntary
      d. striated
      e. skeletal

19 . Which of the following is a type of white
      blood cell that releases heparin?
      a. neutrophils
      b. eosinophils
      c. basophils
      d. monocytes
      e. lymphocytes

20. Cardiac muscle is which of the following?
     a. striated and branched
      b. striated and unbranched
      c. smooth and voluntary
      d. striated and voluntary
      e. smooth and involuntary

21. Which of the following tissues lines kidney ducts?
      a. connective
      b. smooth muscle
      c. nervous
     d. epithelial
      e. adipose

22. Which of the following apply to skeletal muscle?
      a. smooth and involuntary
      b. smooth and unbranched
      c. striated and voluntary
      d. smooth and voluntary
      e. striated and branched

23. Cartilage is described as which of the
      following types of tissues?
     a. connective
      b. reproductive
      c. nervous
      d. epithelial
      e. adipose

24. Which is a type of connective tissue fiber found in organs such
       as the kidneys, that serve as filters?
      a. reticular
      b. elastic
      c. collagenous
      d. thrombocyte
      e. monocyte

25 . Which of the following fibers has the greatest tensile strength?
      a. elastin fibers
      b. fibrin fibers
      c. collagenous fibers
      d. reticular fibers
      e. spindle fibers

26. Which of the following statements about arthropods is true?
      a. they are encased by an exoskeleton
      b. they move by way of a unique water
          vascular system
      c. they include crustaceons, spiders, and
          insects
      d. both a and c

27. Which of the following are found in BOTH
      annelids and arthropods?
      a. jointed appendages
      b. exoskeleton
      c. one-way digestive tract
      d. molting

28. All of the following are characteristics of arthropods EXCEPT
      a. an exoskeleton.
      b. numerous species.
      c. jointed appendages.
      d. a diversity of gas exchange structures.
      e. a dorsal nerve cord.

29. An arthropod has all the following characteristics EXCEPT
      a. protostome development.
      b. bilateral symmetry.
      c. psuedocoelom.
      d. 3 embryonic germ layers.
      e. true tissues.

30. Protostomes that have an open circulatory
    system and an exoskeleton of chitin.
     a. Cnidaria
     b. Annelida
     c. Mollusca
     d. Arthropoda
     e. Porifera


31. Protostomes that have a closed circulatory
    system and true segmentation.
     a. Cnidaria
     b. Annelida
     c. Mollusca
     d. platyhelminths
     e. Porifera

32. Protostomes that have an open circulatory
    system and a trochophore larva.
     a. Cnidaria
     b. Annelida
     c. Mollusca
     d. platyhelminths
     e. Porifera

33. Which Molluscan class includes animals that
      undergo embryonic torsion?
      a. polyplacophora
      b. bivalvia
      c. cephalopoda
      d. gastropoda
      e. all molluscan classes have this

34. Which Molluscan class includes clams?
      a. polyplacophora
      b. bivalvia
      c. cephalopoda clams are not mollusks
      d. gastropoda
      e. none of these

35. Which Molluscan class includes the most
      "intelligent" invertebrates?
      a. polyplacophora
      b. bivalvia
      c. cephalopoda
      d. gastropoda
      e. both bivalvia and cephalopoda are equally
          "intelligent".

36. Annelids are abundant and successful
      organisms characterized accurately by all of
      the following EXCEPT
      a. a hydrostatic skeleton.
      b. segmentation.
      c. a complete digestive system.
      d. some parasitic forms.
      e. a cuticle made of chitin.

37. The four body parts of mollusks include all of
      the following EXCEPT
      a. a foot
      b. a trochophore
      c. a visceral mass
      d. a mantle

38. Which of the following classes of the phylum
      Annelida is NOT correctly matched with its
      members?
      a. Oligochaeta - earthworms
      b. Polychaeta - marine worms
      c. Hirudinea - leeches
      d. all of the above are correctly matched

Part II- Short answer. Answer each question in
the space provided.

1. The connective tissue which stores fat is
     called?  adipose

2. True or False? An axon is a cytoplasmic
    process which carries impulses to the nerve
    cell body.  False

3. The process of converting cartilage to bone is
     called?   ossification

4. Compact bones of mammals consists of units
     called? haversion systems (osteons)

5. The type of epithelial tissue designed for
      secretion and active absorption and in which
      goblet cells may be found is? simple columnar

6. The peritoneum is epithelial tissue derived
      from which embryonic germ layer? mesoderm

7. Which epithelial tissue is found as the outer
      layer of skin and lining the mouth, anus and
      vagina and is designed for tremendous wear
      and tear? statified squamous

8. What is the type of nerve cell which provides
      nutrients for neurons? neuroglia

9. Heart muscle is similar to smooth muscle in
      that it is?  involuntary


Part III- Essay. Answer each question in the
space provided. The value of each question is
indicated in parenthesis.

1. Describe fibrous connective tissue as to its
     structure and function and where it is
     commonly found (3 pts).
      dense, collagenous fibers, tendons, ligaments

2. If a sea star has pentaradial symmetry, why
    are they placed into the Bilateria? (2 pts)
     larvae are bilateral
3 . Describe the water vascular system of a sea
    star. (5 pts)
     madreporite, stone canal, ring canal, radial canal, ampulla, sucker

4 . Define these terms as they apply to the
    Echinodermata (4 pts):
    
pedicellaria- pincer-like spines for cleaning

test- solid shell
5 . The circulatory system of Cephalochordates has something in
    common with vertebrates. Explain. (4 pts)
     blood flows posterior in dorsal vessel and anterior in ventral vessel

6 . Describe these terms as they apply to vertebrates (10 pts):
     ammocoetes- larval lamprey
     lateral line organ- detects vibrations in fishes
     oviparous- egg laying
     ray-finned fishes- ancestral to modern actinopterygii
     placoderms- ancestral to chondrichthyes and actinopterygii and sarcopterygii

7 . Define Chordate, and then explain why the
    Molgula (tunicate) is considered a chordate if it did not possess the major characteristics you just described. (4 pts)
    notochord, dorsal hollow nerve cord, pharyngeal gill slits, post anal tail.

Tunicate larvae has all these.

8. In addition to wings and feathers, list and
    describe 4 modifications of birds for flight (4 pts)
     beek instead of teeth, lung with air sacs, hollow bones, rigid bones



9. Describe which compounds (ammonia, uric acid,
    urea) are excreted by fishes, amphibians,
    reptiles, birds and mammals and the reasoning
    behind the differences found. (4 pts)
    fish -ammonia, since lots of water

amphibians and mammals - urea, less toxic

reptiles and birds- uric acid, least toxic.aids filght for birds, desert for reptiles, and shelled eggs for both

10.  Describe the major characteristics and give a
    specific example of each of these groups (4  pts):
     monotremes-oviparous, spiny anteater
     marsupials- viviparous, pouched, kangaroo

11. Define these terms (6 pts):
     metamerism- segmented, but units repeat
     typhlosole- fold in intestine of earthworms
     protonephridia- first kidney, blind tubule, flame cell

12. List four advantages of possessing a coelom.  (4 pts)

space for organs, hydrostatic skeleton, nourish cells, separate GI tract