INTRODUCTORY BIOLOGY 
EXAM I                               NAME____________ 

Part A: Circle the best answer. 

1. Which of the following correctly pairs a protist
       with one of its characteristics?
     a. Excavates--slender pseudopodia
     b. Rhizarians--without tests
     c. Apicomplexa--all parasitic
     d. Actinopoda--calcium carbonate shell
     e. Foraminifera--ciliated

2. Protozoan protists were generally classified according to
     a. nutrition
     b. cell shape
     c. size
     d. locomotion
     e. type of reproduction

3. A snail-like, coiled shell of calcium carbonate is characteristic of
     a. zoomastigotes
     b. foraminiferans
     c. heliozoans
     d. amoebas
     e. ciliates

4. Natural selection may occur when there are   _____. 
     a. heritable traits 
     b. adaptive traits 
     c. variation in traits within a population 
     d. differences in survival and reproduction among members of a
          population 
     e. all of the above 

5. Given that traits are inherited, individuals in a population who
     possess the ________ will tend to make up more of the
     reproductive base for the next generation. 
     a. widest world distribution of their species 
     b. most ancestors in the fossil record 
     c. most adaptive traits 
     d. least variation in traits 
     e. greatest variation in traits 

6. Existing alleles are shuffled into, through, or out of populations by
     _______. 
     a. mutation 
     b. genetic drift 
     c. gene flow 
     d. natural selection 
     e. b, c, and d only 

7. The sickle-cell trait evolved in tropical and subtropical regions of
    Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. Then it appeared in the United
    States population with the influx of  individuals who were forcibly
     brought over from Africa prior to the Civil War. In terms of
      microevolution, this is an example of ______.
     a. genetic drift 
     b. mutation 
     c. natural selection 
     d. gene flow 
     e. b, c, and d only 

8. Comparative morphology ________. 
     a. is based mainly on the fossil record 
     b. often reveals similarities in embryonic development stages that
          indicate evolutionary relationship 
     c. shows evidence of divergences and convergences in
         body parts among certain major groups
     d. compares the proteins and the DNA from different species to
          reveal relationships 
     e. both b and c are correct 

9. The theory known as _____ states that a divine being created
     each type of organism and that these organisms are immutable.
     a. evolution 
     b. punctuated equilibrium 
     c. creationism 
     d. symbiosis 
     e. none of the above 

10. For consistency with the theory of natural selection as the agent
    of  evolution, it is necessary to postulate that 
     a. in each generation, all individuals adapted for their
         environment live longer than those not so well adapted
     b. the deaths of individuals occur completely at random with
          respect to the environment 
     c. some of the reproductive success of
           individual organisms is heritable 
     d. more than half of the poorly adapted individuals must be
         eliminated by natural selection in each generation 

11. Natural selection can best be defined as 
     a. survival of the best adapted individuals 
     b. differential reproduction 
     c. differential population growth rates 
     d. elimination of the weak by the strong 

12. Most of the genetic variation observed in large populations arises  from 
     a. new mutations 
     b. migration of individuals in and out of the population 
     c. recombination due to sexual reproduction 
     d. genetic drift 

13. The process of evolution from a single ancestral species to a
       variety of forms that occupy somewhat different habitats is
        termed 
      a. adaptive radiation 
      b. convergence 
      c. disruptive evolution 
      d. character displacement 

14. Black peppered moths became more abundant in the English
       country side following the advent of the industrial revolution
        because 
      a. black moths are distasteful to predatory  birds 
      b. it was difficult for predatory birds to see  
          the black moths on tree trunks 
      c. predatory birds decreased in number owing to the effects of
          pollution from factories 
      d. light-colored moths were more sensitive to the air pollutants
          than were dark moths 

15. A gene pool is the sum of all the ____ of all the individuals in a
       population. 
      a. mutations 
      b. gametes 
      c. genotypes 
      d. alleles 

16. The founder effect is an example of 
      a. mutation 
      b. capitalism 
      c. natural selection 
      d. genetic drift 

17. In the phenomena known as a population bottleneck, _____ is
      decreased as the population's ____ is reduced. 
      a. variability; size 
      b. variability; mutation rate 
      c. gene flow; mobility 
      d. gene flow; fitness 

18. In general, the role of the female in sexual selection is to 
      a. mate with as many males as possible 
      b. choose the best possible mate 
      c. find the best breeding ground in which to raise the young 
      d. build the nest, den, etc., and thus be selected by a
          discriminating male 

19. The model of punctuated equilibria proposes 
      that most evolutionary changes have occurred 
      a. within the last 100,000 years 
      b. in rapid bursts separated by long intervals 
      c. very gradually 
      d. in a manner consistent with the known fossil record 
      e. both b and d are correct 

20. The primary role of extinction is that it 
      a. removes all except the perfectly adapted species 
      b. makes room for new species to evolve 
      c. maintains the global equilibrium number of species 
      d. only a and c are correct


Part B. Short answer worth 2 points each. 

1. True or False? Bacteria were first classified in
    the animal kingdom of Linnaeus' two kingdom
    system since they were motile and
    nonphotosynthetic.  

2. Some bacteria are photosynthetic autotrophs,
    however instead of oxygen they release?
   

3. ? is the saprophytic Oomycete commonly found
    growing on fish.

4. The Oomycetes differ from fungi in that
    the (1N or 2N?) stage is dominant.
   
5. For evolution to occur in a population, reproduction must be
    totally random (True or False?). __________________ 

6. James Hutton felt that the evidence from geology (e.g. formation
    of canyons) suggests that the earth is only 6,000 years old (True
    or False?) ___________________ 

7. In using comparative morphology as a basis of  evolutionary
     relationships, it is felt that analogous structures indicate common
    ancestry (True or False?) ______________ 

Part D. Essay. Answer in the space provided. The value of each question is indicated. 

 
1. Draw a diagram illustrating sporic meiosis,
    indicating where mitosis and meiosis occurs.
    Give an example of an organism with a
    dominant 2N portion of this life cycle (6 pts).
 

2. Match the correct term(s) with the description.
    Some letters may be used more than once or
    not at all. Total of 11 points.
    a. chemosynthetic autotroph 
    b. saprophyte
    c. parasite
    d. photosynthetic autotroph
    e. heterocysts
    f. thallus

____ provide both oxygen and organic matter for
        other organisms
____ Spirogyra
____ Diatoms
____ produce food by oxidizing inorganic
        compounds such as ammonia
____ use preformed organic matter
____ incorporate atmospheric nitrogen into
        organic compounds
____ Anabaena
____ Ulva

3. In a population that is in Hardy-Weinberg  equilibrium, the frequency of the recessive homozygote genotype is 0.09. The frequency  of individuals homozygous for the dominant allele is (3 pts)? 

4. Explain disruptive selection.  Give a specific example. (6 pts)

5. A spacecraft with 8 men and 6 women crashed on a faraway planet that was similar to earth.  All survived the crash and were able to settle  on this new planet. Although none of these individuals was an albino (individuals with no pigment in their skin, hair, or eyes), seven of  them carried the recessive allele for albinism  (their genotype was Aa). When the  populations on this planet reaches 1,000  individuals, about how many people would   you  expect to be albinos if you assume a  Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for albinism (6  pts)?

Part C. Match the numbered term(s) on the left with the lettered term(s) or definitions(s) on the right. Some numbers may be used more than once.  (8 pts)

1. sympatric speciation 
2. allopatric speciation 
3. results in reproductive isolation based on 
    shared ancestry 
4. geographical isolation 
5. genetic drift 
6. homology 
7. an example of directional  
    selection 

_____ by chance an allele may be
         eliminated from 
          a populations gene pool 
_____ industrial melanism 
_____ a large population of animals is split in 
          two by an ocean. The gene pools of the 
          two resulting populations then diverge 
          until each population becomes a separate 
          species 
____ anatomical similarities 
____ two plant species can often hybridize. The 
          hybrid progeny may become self-fertile, 
          giving rise to a distinct new species