(BS 130)

Reading Assignments- a short quiz will be given at the beginning of lectures to test completion of reading assignments.

Exam I
1. Chapter 1, Pages 15-22.  What are the basic steps of the scientific method? What is deductive reasoning? What is inductive reasoning? Be able to give examples of deduction and induction. What is a controlled experiment? A control group? An experimental group? What is sampling error? How do you test for this? What is a  null hypotheses (see case 1)?

2. Chapter 2, Pages 26-31.  Be able to define and describe the terms: atom, element, compound, molecule, isotope, radioisotope, electron, neutron, proton, atomic number, mass number. Which elements make up 96% of the mass of any living organism?  

3. Chapter 3, Pages 46-70. Be able to recognize the various functional groups represented in table 3-1. What are condensation and hydrolysis reactions? Be able to give examples. What is the basic structure of a monosaccharide? A disaccharide? Starch? Glycogen? Cellulose? Chitin? What is a lipid? A fat? An oil? A phospholipid? A steroid? An amino acid? A nucleotide? Be able to tell them apart and explain your reasoning (see table 3-3).

Exam II
4. Chapter 4, Pages 75-77.  Cell size: Be able to explain why cell size is limited.

5. Chapter 4,  Pages 81-101.  Plant, Animal, and Prokaryotic cells: be able to explain how they are the same and how they are different. Cell death: what are the differences between necrosis and apoptosis? Give examples of their significance.

6. Chapter 5, Pages 123-127.  Exocytosis, endocytosis, receptor- mediated endocytosis: Be able to describe these processes and explain how they are the same and how they are different. Know the examples given.

7. Chapter 7, Pages 165-166.  Temperature and pH affects on enzyme activity: Be able to explain how these variables influence enzyme activity using specific examples.

Exam III

8. Chapter 8, Pages 188-189.  Be able to summarize the steps for lactic acid and alcoholic fermentations. Contrast the energy yield for these processes compared to aerobic respiration.

9. Chapter 9, Page 197.  Examine the absorption spectrum (Fig. 9.6) for various pigments found in plants. Compare this to the action spectrum (Fig. 9.6) for photosynthesis. What pattern is evident? 

Exam IV
10. Chapter 10, Pages 217-223. What is the difference between the cell cycle and mitosis? Be able to describe the major characteristics of interphase (G1, S, G2), prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.  Be able to recognize these stages. What are the differences between plant and animal cell cycles? 

11. Chapter 11, Pages 244-245.  Test cross: What is the function of a test cross? Be able to explain how to do a test cross and explain the possible results.  Pages 253-254.  X-linked genes and inheritance: Be able to explain the role of these genes in inheritance and to give specific examples.

12. Chapter 12, Page 271-272.   DNA replication: Be able to explain what is meant by semiconservative replication.

13. Chapter 14, Page 309-312.  Be able to explain the similarities and differences between the lac and trp operons.

14. Chapter 15, Pages 326-335. Be able to define these terms: genome, genomic library, genetic probe, hybridize, complementary DNA (cDNA), reverse transcriptase, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), TAQ polymerase, gel electrophoresis, dideoxynucleotide, DNA sequencing, National Center for Biotechnology Information.