Introductory Biology
Sample Questions, Exam III                    Name__________

Multiple Choice: Circle the best answer.

1. In photosynthesis ATP is produced in the:
      a. cristae membrane.
      b. thylakoid membrane.
      c. nucleus.
      d. nucleolus.
      e. ribosomes.

2. Chlorophyll and other photosynthetic pigments are associated
      with the:
      a. stroma.
      b. thylakoid membranes.
      c. mesophyll membranes.
      d. light reaction centers of the stroma lamellae.
      e. stroma grana.

3. Reactions that occur in the thylakoid membranes are to
       reactions that occur in the stroma, as:
      a. carbon fixation reactions are to photochemical reactions.
      b. electron transport is to chemiosmosis.
      c. light-dependent reactions are to photochemical reactions.
      d. carbon fixation reactions are to chemiosmosis.
      e. light-dependent reactions are to carbon
          fixation reactions.

4. Ribulose phosphate is synthesized from:
      a. NADP+.
      b. pyruvate.
      c. PGAL.
      d. RuBP.
      e. CO2

5. ATP + H20 ---> ADP + Pi
      This reaction is classified as an:
      a. endergonic reaction.
      b. enthalpy reaction.
      c. entropy reaction.
      d. exergonic reaction.
      e. intermediate phosphorylation reaction.

6. In aerobic respiration, glucose is:
      a. reduced to ATP.
      b. reduced to energy.
      c. oxidized to water.
      d. oxidized to carbon dioxide.
      e. simultaneously oxidized and reduced.

7. In eukaryotes, glycolysis occurs in the:
      a. mitochondrial inner membrane.
      b. lysosomes.
      c. Golgi complex.
      d. cytosol.
      e. mitochondrial matrix.

8. In glycolysis, glucose becomes activated by the addition of:
      a. phosphates from two ATP molecules.
      b. phosphates from four ATP molecules.
      c. two pyruvates + two NADH + four ATP.
      d. two FADH2 + two ATP molecules.
      e. electrons from NADH.

9. In glycolysis, the phosphate bond in phosphoenolpyruvate is
      special because it is:
      a. a very high energy bond.
      b. used to reduce NAD+.
      c. used to recharge an ADP.
      d. used to decarboxylate an ATP.
      e. used to oxidize NADH.

10. A reactant in photosynthesis that becomes reduced is to a
       reactant that becomes oxidized, as:
      a. O2 is to C6H12O6
      b. O2 is to H2O
      c. CO2 is to C6H12O6
      d. H2O is to H2O
      e. CO2 is to H2O

11. The ultimate source of energy for almost all living organisms is:
      a. heat.
      b. glucose.
      c. carbohydrates.
      d. lipids.
      e. the sun.

12. The pathways in which larger molecules are broken down into
       smaller ones are to the pathways in which complex molecules
       are synthesized from simpler substances, as:
      a. metabolism is to catabolism.
      b. metabolism is to anabolism.
      c. catabolism is to anabolism.
      d. catabolism is to metabolism.
      e. anabolism is to catabolism.

13. Pathways that have an overall energy requirement are to
      pathways that involve the overall release of energy, as:
      a. metabolism is to catabolism.
      b. metabolism is to anabolism.
      c. catabolism is to anabolism.
      d. catabolism is to metabolism.
      e. anabolism is to catabolism.

14. An exergonic reaction that releases energy is to the energy
       necessary to begin a reaction, as:
      a. spontaneous reaction is to activation energy.
      b. potential energy is to kinetic energy.
      c. endergonic reaction is to kinetic energy.
      d. activation energy is to spontaneous  reaction.
      e. enthalpy reaction is to endergonic  reaction.

15. The release of energy is to the acceptance of energy, as:
      a. reduction is to oxidation.
      b. redox is to ATP.
      c. redox is to ADP.
      d. oxidation is to reduction.
      e. ADP is to ATP.

Short answer. Fill in the correct response. Each question is worth
two points.

1. What is the function of the lipid tail of the
     chlorophyll molecule? _____________

2. True or False? The energy that powers
     oxidative phosphorylationis provided by a flow
     of electrons into the mitochondrial matrix.

3. True or False? Energy is not the same for all
     light waves. The longer the wave length of
     light the greater the energy. _____________

4. In photosynthesis, the light dependent
     reactions work at the same rate at different
     temperatures. This idea provides support for
     the idea that these reactions are?

5. True or False? The light dependent reactions
      cannot proceed without the products of the
      light independent reactions. _____________

6. The function of lactic acid fermentation in
      muscle cells during oxygen debt is to?

7. An example of a final electron acceptor in the
      electron transport chain for anaerobic
      respiration is? _____________

8. In aerobic respiration, is the oxygen molecule
      oxidized or reduced? _____________

9. True or False? In glycolysis, one example of
      substrate level phosphorylation is when
      glucose receives a phosphate group from ATP
      to activate it. _____________

10. Decarboxylation followed by reduction of
      pyruvate yields? _____________

11. In the science of thermodynamics, the property
     of randomness is also referred to as?

12. In ? reactions the potential energy of the final
     state is greater than the potential energy of
     the initial state. _____________

13. ? refers to the various pathways in which
     complex molecules are synthesized from
     simpler substances. _____________

14. True or False? Organismal body heat is a
     byproduct of endergonic reactions. _________

Part III - Essay. Answer the questions in the space provided. The
value of each question is indicated in parenthesis.

1. Describe noncyclic photophosphorylation. (6

2. Explain why anaerobic respiration is not the
    same as fermentation. (3 pts)

3. In step four of the citric acid cycle,
    alpha-ketoglutarate is decarboxylated. Is this
    reaction thermodynamically favorable or
    unfavorable? Explain. (4 pts)

4. Chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b and
    accessory pigments carotenoids and
    xanthophylls. Show how an absorption
    spectrum for chlorophyll a correlates
    with an action spectrum for photosynthesis. (4

5. Describe what is meant by the term
    photosystem in photosynthesis. (4 pts)

6. Explain the importance of the following terms
    in regards to respiration: (6 pts)


   electrical gradient-

7. Summarize the reactions for glycolysis,
      formation of acetyl coenzyme A, and the citric
      acid cycle. (3 pts)